Natural resource abundanceInternational trade; Financial development; Trade opennessInstitutional quality; Economic development; Economic growth; Human development
Economic development in a contemporary setting encompasses a broad range of parameters. This balanced panel study of 30 countries uses two single-equation models to investigate the impacts of natural resource abundance, international trade, financial development, trade openness and institutional quality on two proxies for economic development – economic growth and a human development index. The data spans from 1990 to 2016 and the impact is assessed in aggregate as well as the countries' level of development in three groups – Lower-middle, Upper-middle and High Income Countries. Four panel estimation approaches are used: Fixed Effects (FE), Random Effects (RE), Panel Fully Modified Least Squares (FMOLS) and Panel Dynamic Least Squares (DOLS). While natural resource abundance has a significantly positive impact on economic growth, a primarily negative and insignificant effect on human development exists. Interestingly, international trade and broad money have significantly negative impacts on economic development. Trade openness’ positive effect exceeds that of institutional quality. The findings suggest that the variables have a stronger influence on economic growth as compared to human development.