Adoption; Alternate wetting and drying; DeterminantsInput effectiveness; Vietnam; Mekong Delta
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the adoption of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) technique and provides the economic evaluation and determinants of AWD adoption in rice production in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: The study extends the drainage factor into the AWD score. The cost benefit analysis is utilized for the economic evaluation, and the Cragg model is applied to examine the determinants of AWD adoption. Findings: The results indicate that there are significant differences in inputs such as water, seed, fertilizers and mechanization between the low and high levels of AWD adoption. The yields are significantly different at different adoption levels. The Cragg model found that irrigation infrastructure, AWD training and perceived ease of use of the technology are determinants of AWD adoption level. Collective pumping is considered as a major constraint in the AWD adoption. Research limitations/implications: The results provide managerial implications, with a focus on the effectiveness of inputs, the irrigation infrastructure and AWD training to promote the AWD adoption. Challenges of rice field flatness should be investigated in a further study. Originality/value: The study contributes to existing literature by providing an empirical evidence for the large-scale adoption of AWD with a comprehensive economic evaluation, extending the drainage performance into the score to accurately reflect the water conservation and promoting the use of a more flexible modeling approach with the Cragg model.