This study aims to examine the relationship among concepts as market orientation, corporate social responsibility, firm performance, and relationship marketing orientation in a transition economy such Vietnam. A model with its key determinants was conducted with quantitative test on a sample of 242 respondents, comprising owners and senior managers of Vietnamese enterprises in the marketing communications industry. Structural equation modeling was used to verify proposed relationships. The results show that relationship marketing orientation moderates all relations of constructs in the research model. In particular, all components are associated with relationship marketing orientation moderating relation of constructs in different ways. The findings suggest that Vietnamese senior managers as well as owners should upgrade their perceptions about the importance of all research concepts in order to improve enterprise competitiveness in a market-oriented economy.