COVID-19; Emotional exhaustion; Frontline hotel employees; Perceived health risk; Perceived job insecurity; Trade union support
Under the lens of conservation of resources and social exchange theories and job demands-resources model, this research aimed at advancing the knowledge regarding the role of trade union support (TUS) in tempering the impact of perceived health risk of COVID-19 (PHRCV19) on frontline hotel employees (FHEs)’ job insecurity and emotional exhaustion (EE), a research topic that is thus far overlooked. An explanatory sequential mixed-method design was adopted. Quantitative data collected through a two-wave survey from 291 FHEs were performed to test the hypotheses using SmartPLS, and 16 in-depth interviews were then analyzed to gain a deeper understanding of the quantitative study’s findings and identify the right ways to enhance employee resilience during COVID-19. We found that (1) TUS directly reduces perceived job insecurity (PJI), (2) PHRCV19 has a positive effect on PJI and EE, and (3) PJI positively influences EE; at the same time, PJI partially mediates the PHRCV19–EE relationship. However, the moderating role of TUS on the impact of PHRCV19 on PJI, and that of PJI on EE, is insignificant. This research also provided practical implications helping reduce FHEs’ PJI and EE.