Bias; Data collection; Data analysis; Ethics; Ethnographic; Grounded theory; Narrative|Paradigm and approach; Qualitative research; Qualitative research report; Reliability and validity; Research triangulation
Qualitative research is necessary because it explores variables that are not predetermined in social studies. This paper aims to present the definition, characteristics, and philosophical assumptions of qualitative research and critically to discuss major contemporary concerns in qualitative data collection. The main methods to collect data, alongside their strengths and weaknesses, are presented to help researchers use them properly. The authors also sketch different approaches to qualitative data analysis and measures of research reliability and validity. The paper ends with how to write a qualitative research report. Also, it discusses the ethical issues which researchers need to consider. With concise, straightforward, and in-depth analyses and presentations of the contemporary issues in qualitative research, this paper helps readers understand and choose appropriate approaches, methods, and techniques for their research.